The Neurologic System        

A 35 Year old female teacher presented to the clinic with worsening numbness in her right arm. A couple of years ago, she had an episode of blurred vision and change in visual acuity that resolved spontaneously. Physical examination revealed hyper-reactive reflexes.
On further investigations, MRI of the head showed the following:

Describe the changes seen in the MRI:

What is the most likely diagnosis?

An infant is having swallowing difficulties, weak cry, and weakness of extremities. MRI of the brain showed the following:

What is the most likely diagnosis?

What are other conditions commonly associated with this disease?

A 55 Year old male presented to the ER with acute onset of left facial drop and left arm and leg weakness.CT scan of the head showed the following

What is the diagnosis?

Which artery is most likely affected?

List the most important risk factors:

What is the most common etiology of this disease?

A 35 year old female complained of foot drop and muscle weakness. Lately, she complains of sensory loss and hands involvement. Upon physical examination, a deformity of the leg is noticed:

What is the most likely diagnosis?

What is the claim of fame of this disease?

A 50 year old female was brought to the ER after being involved in a motor vehicle accident. Upon examining her, she complains of headache and has right sided weakness.
The CT scan of her brain showed the following :

What is the diagnosis?

What is the classic finding on CT scans in such patients?

​A 25 year old male involved in a motor vehicle accident was brought to the ER. On examination, He was fully oriented and alert, but witnesses report that the patient lost his consciousness and then regained it shortly after the injury. After doing the imaging, the patient became unresponsive and had a dilated right pupil. His CT is shown bellow:

What is the diagnosis?

Which artery is most commonly associated with this injury?

What is the classic finding on CT?

This is a brain biopsy taken after an autopsy from a 75 year old man who had a history of resting tremor, rigidity, and waxed “emotionless” facial features.

What is this abnormal histological structure called?

What does this abnormal structure contain?

What could be the most likely diagnosis?

This is a brain biopsy taken after an autopsy from a 95 year old woman who suffered from progressive memory loss and behavioral changes.

What is this abnormal histological structure called?

In what disease is this abnormality found?

A 52 year old female presented to your clinic complaining of fever, night sweats and weight loss for the last 6 months.

In addition, she also complains of bloody cough for the last 2 weeks and noticed that her left eye is not opening properly.
On Examination, you noticed the following: 

What is this pathology called?

Supported by the history, what is the most likely tumor causing this pathology?

What is the classical triad of this pathology?

A 70 year old male presents to your clinic with difficulty walking, memory loss and urinary incontinence. brain MRI was obtained and showed the following:

What is the most likely diagnosis?

Mention a valuable tool in monitoring treatment response.

A two month old infant is brought by his parents due to poor feeding, vomiting and reduced activity, further history revealed that the infant had a congenital central nervous system malformation. upon inspection, the infant was irritable and you noticed the following:

What is the abnormality/disease seen in this infant?

Which type of the disease is this infant most likely having?

List one congenital central nervous system malformation associated with this type of disease?

Mention a valuable tool in monitoring treatment response.

A two month old infant is brought by his parents due to poor feeding, vomiting and reduced activity, further history revealed that the infant had a congenital central nervous system malformation. upon inspection, the infant was irritable and you noticed the following:

What is the most likely diagnosis ?

With which disease/disorder are those abnormalities associated with?

Spot Diagnosis Team:

Ali Al Othman 
Abdallah Bin Shabib 
Fahad Al Sayed 
Mohnnad Al Sammary 

Main Reviewer:    

Husam Al Tahan 

Publishers: 
​Adel Yasky 
Bader Al Tamimi
Bayan Al Zomaili ​

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