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Movement Disorders

Study guide:


  1. Hypokinetic movements:

    • Slow movement with increased tone.

    • E.g: bradykinesia, and rigidity as in Parkinson’s disease, and Catatonia.

  2. Hyperkinetic movements:

    • Excessive involuntary movements.

    • Tremors: sustained sinusoidal oscillation of a body part.

    • Chorea: excessive, irregular movements flitting from one body part to another (‘dance- like’) “check the picture”.

    • Myoclonus: brief electric shock-like jerks.

    • Hemiballismus: violent swinging movement on one side.

    • Tics: stereotyped movements or vocalizations (can temporarily suppressed).

    • Dystonia: sustained muscle spasms causing twisting movements and abnormal postures


Location of the injury:

Huntington’s Disease:


  • Most common cause is stroke.

  • Affects the contralateral side.


  • Focal:

    • Seen in adults.

    • Rx: Botox injections.

  • Generalized:

    • Seen in children.

    • Rx: Anticholinergic.



  • Sattar, Husain A. Fundamentals Of Pathology. Chicago:, 2011. Print.

  • Le, Tao, Vikas Bhushan, and Herman Singh Bagga. First Aid For The USMLE Step 2 CK. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical, 2010. Print.

  • Agabegi, Steven S, Elizabeth D Agabegi, and Adam C Ring. Step-Up To Medicine. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2013. Print.

  • Cartoon, Editorial. 'Michael Jackson Cartoon'. Dreamstime. N.p., 2015. Web. 24 Sept. 2015.

  • Walker, Brian R et al. Davidson's Principles And Practice Of Medicine. Print.

First author:            Roaa Amer       
Second author:       Abdullah AlAsaad
Reviewed by:          Abdulrahman AlNasser
                               Bayan Alzomaili
Format Editor:        Adel Yasky

Website publisher: Bayan Alzomaili

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