Congenital Heart Disease

Study guide:

Cyanotic Lesions:

  • All are right to left shunt, which causes cyanosis.

  • All need surgical treatment.

  • Tetralogy of Fallot & Truncus Arteriosus are associated with Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD).

  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome & Transposition of the great vessels are both PDA dependent.

  • Echocardiogram is the Gold standard in diagnosis.

* All figures can be found in the appendix of this page.

  • Acyanotic Lesions:

    • All are left to right shunt.

    • All can progress to Eisenmenger complex (From left to right shunt to a right to left shunt which then leads to cyanosis)

* All figures can be found in the appendix of this page.

Endocardial Cushion Defect:

  • ASDs and VSDs with abnormal atrioventricular valves.

  • Left to right shunt at the atrial and ventricular levels.

  • Present early in infancy with early heart failure.

  • Pulmonary systolic ejection murmur.

 

 

 

 

References:

  1. Fischer, Conrad. Master The Boards. Print.

  2. Cvetnic, William G, Eduardo Pino, and Christine E Koerner. USMLE Step 2 CK Pediatrics. [New York]: Kaplan, 2011. Print.

  3. Lissauer, Tom, Graham Clayden, and Alan Craft. Illustrated Textbook Of Paediatrics. Edinburgh: Mosby, 2012. Print.

  4. Nairaland.com,. 'Medical Recall - Health - Nigeria'. N.p., 2015. Web. 11 Nov. 2015. (Figure1).

  5. Learningradiology.com,. 'Welcome To Learningradiology - Radiology, Radiologic, Imaging, Signs, List, Collection, Illustrated, Cases, Xray, X-Ray, Gi, Gu, Chest, Thoracic, Teaching, Website, Web, Site'. N.p., 2015. Web. 11 Nov. 2015. (Figure 2).

  6. Learningradiology.com,. 'Ddxs In CHD'. N.p., 2015. Web. 11 Nov. 2015. (Figure 3).

  7. Pedclerk.bsd.uchicago.edu,. 'Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return / Connection | Pediatrics Clerkship | The University Of Chicago'. N.p., 2015. Web. 11 Nov. 2015. (Figure 4).

  8. Gaillard, Frank. 'Figure 3 Sign | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.Org'. Radiopaedia.org. N.p., 2015. Web. 12 Nov. 2015. (Figure 5).

  9. IJland, M. M., and R. B. Tanke. 'Aortic Coarctation'. Circulation 120.13 (2009): 1294-1295. Web. 12 Nov. 2015. (Figure 6).

  10. Hall J, Guyton A. Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology.

 

 

Written by:      Roaa Amer

 

Reviewed by:   Abdullah AlAssad

                         Nawaf Alkharashi

                         Lama Al Luhidan

Most common congenital heart defect in Down Syndrome is endocardial cushion defect.

Audio recording:


Read by: Bayan Alzomaili
Directed by: Rana Alzahrani
Audio production: Bayan Alzomaili

Appendix:

Figure 1-Boot Shaped Heart
Figure 1-Boot Shaped Heart

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Figure 2- Egg on String.
Figure 2- Egg on String.

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Figure 3-Globular-shaped Heart with Pulmonary Edema.
Figure 3-Globular-shaped Heart with Pulmonary Edema.

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Figure 4- Snowman, figure 8 Sign.
Figure 4- Snowman, figure 8 Sign.

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Figure 5-Sign 3.
Figure 5-Sign 3.

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Figure 6-Rib notching.
Figure 6-Rib notching.