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Congenital Heart Disease

Study guide:

Cyanotic Lesions:

  • All are right to left shunt, which causes cyanosis.

  • All need surgical treatment.

  • Tetralogy of Fallot & Truncus Arteriosus are associated with Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD).

  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome & Transposition of the great vessels are both PDA dependent.

  • Echocardiogram is the Gold standard in diagnosis.

* All figures can be found in the appendix of this page.

  • Acyanotic Lesions:

    • All are left to right shunt.

    • All can progress to Eisenmenger complex (From left to right shunt to a right to left shunt which then leads to cyanosis)

* All figures can be found in the appendix of this page.

Endocardial Cushion Defect:

  • ASDs and VSDs with abnormal atrioventricular valves.

  • Left to right shunt at the atrial and ventricular levels.

  • Present early in infancy with early heart failure.

  • Pulmonary systolic ejection murmur.






  1. Fischer, Conrad. Master The Boards. Print.

  2. Cvetnic, William G, Eduardo Pino, and Christine E Koerner. USMLE Step 2 CK Pediatrics. [New York]: Kaplan, 2011. Print.

  3. Lissauer, Tom, Graham Clayden, and Alan Craft. Illustrated Textbook Of Paediatrics. Edinburgh: Mosby, 2012. Print.

  4.,. 'Medical Recall - Health - Nigeria'. N.p., 2015. Web. 11 Nov. 2015. (Figure1).

  5.,. 'Welcome To Learningradiology - Radiology, Radiologic, Imaging, Signs, List, Collection, Illustrated, Cases, Xray, X-Ray, Gi, Gu, Chest, Thoracic, Teaching, Website, Web, Site'. N.p., 2015. Web. 11 Nov. 2015. (Figure 2).

  6.,. 'Ddxs In CHD'. N.p., 2015. Web. 11 Nov. 2015. (Figure 3).

  7.,. 'Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return / Connection | Pediatrics Clerkship | The University Of Chicago'. N.p., 2015. Web. 11 Nov. 2015. (Figure 4).

  8. Gaillard, Frank. 'Figure 3 Sign | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.Org'. N.p., 2015. Web. 12 Nov. 2015. (Figure 5).

  9. IJland, M. M., and R. B. Tanke. 'Aortic Coarctation'. Circulation 120.13 (2009): 1294-1295. Web. 12 Nov. 2015. (Figure 6).

  10. Hall J, Guyton A. Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology.



Written by:      Roaa Amer


Reviewed by:   Abdullah AlAssad

                         Nawaf Alkharashi

                         Lama Al Luhidan

Most common congenital heart defect in Down Syndrome is endocardial cushion defect.

Audio recording:

Read by: Bayan Alzomaili
Directed by: Rana Alzahrani
Audio production: Bayan Alzomaili


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